Ernesto Cavallini (1807?1874) was an Italian clarinetist and composer.
Cavallini was the principal clarinetist of La Scala in Milan. He played on a six-key boxwood clarinet, which was considered an "outdated" instrument. As a composer, he is best known for Adagio and Tarantella, Adagio Sentimental, his fantasies, and his 30 Caprices for Clarinet.Cavallini was described as the "Paganini of the clarinet". He cited Rossini as an influence in his compositions. Cavallini's playing inspired Verdi to compose a clarinet solo and cadenza in his 1862 La forza del destino.